Information

Pig breeds: Landrace

Pig breeds: Landrace

Origin, diffusion and production characteristics

Breed originating in Denmark, where it was created in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries by crossing local sows (of ancient, perhaps Celtic origin) with Large White boars imported from England and practicing a rigorous selection (lasting over half a century) in order to obtain a bacon type.
The breed has spread to many countries where, selected with different criteria, it has formed several strains (Dutch, French, German, English, Belgian and Italian).
The current Danish Landrace (Danish Landrace) is among the most selected and most esteemed breeds in the world, thanks also to the perfectly efficient organization of the Danish experimental stations for pig progeny testing as well as for the severity with which the registration to the National Pig Book is regulated. Careful selection and good maintenance care allow to obtain, generally, two parts per year. the average live weight of piglets at birth is 1.3-1.5 kg. Sows have good maternal attitudes. The live weight of piglets at weaning is 15-17 kg. With a rational diet, at six months of age they reach 90 kg in baconers.
The Landrace pig is partially bred in purity, but the main purpose of its breeding is to obtain meticce sows with the Large White breed, in order to take advantage of the leterosis deriving from the first generation cross, especially with regard to the maternal characteristics, the development of the ham, the length of the loins and the modest thickness of the lard.
In Italy two types of Landrace are bred: the Italian Landrace and the Belgian Landrace for which there are two different Genealogical Books. The Italian Landrace is long-limbed, harmonious, of good size, with a solid but not too heavy skeleton. The Belgian Landrace is medium in size, fleshy, with a light but solid skeleton and with globular hams.
Today it is one of the best breeds ever. For productivity it is comparable to Large White, from which it is distinguished by the greater length (supernumerary dorsal vertebrae 15/16 instead of 13). High yield at the slaughterhouse, excellent both for the production of heavy pigs and for the production of lean meat for direct consumption. Good prolificity, with 11 piglets born per brood and about 2 parts per year, and high maternal aptitude.
For fat the Landrace is bred crossed with the Large White (Large White sow and Landrace boar) and as such it populates the vast majority of intensive farms in Northern Italy for the production of heavy pig.
It is the second most consistent breed in our country, after the Italian Large White, with a very large number of breeds.

Morphological characteristics

Good size, very elongated trunk. Well muscled chest, rump and buttocks. Head with fronto-nasal rectilinear or concavity profile just mentioned, with relatively long ears, carried forward and hanging. Thin and relatively elongated neck.
White coat with pink skin.

Landrace breed sow and boar

Belgian Landrace Boar (photo source ANAS)

Since March 13, 1972, the section of the Genealocic Book in Italy of the Landrace breed has been divided into two subsections:
- Italian Landrace;
- Belgian Landrace.
For selective purposes the crossing of subjects enrolled in the two subsections is not allowed.

Italian Landrace - Morphological characters

The National Pig Breeders Association (ANAS) manages the herd book of the Italian Landrace breed.
- Type: long, harmonious, of good size, thin, robust, solid but not too heavy skeleton.
- Coat and Pigmentation: white bristles; depigmented skin (rosea); the presence of some small black spots and clearly defined slate is tolerated.
- Head: light, fine, of medium length, with frontal-nasal profile and concavity just mentioned or straight; well developed snout; strong and clean jaws; light cheeks; ears relatively long, light, directed forward and downward.
- Neck: thin and relatively elongated, harmoniously connected with the head and trunk.
- Trunk: very elongated, well marked; longitudinal development of the lumbar region; light and well-wrapped shoulders; muscular chest; very long and muscular back and loins, of uniform length or slightly and gradually increasing in a cranio-caudal sense, forming an almost straight and horizontal line that harmoniously connects with the regions of the withers and the rump; wide, long and muscular croup that connects with the buttocks through a very accentuated regular curve; tail attached high at the point of passage between rump and buttocks; side and sideways depressed side and side well shaped; supported belly forming a straight line with the sternum; ham which results from the description of the rump and the buttock and therefore, on the whole, very developed in the anteroposterior direction, thick and well muscled, very descended.
- Limbs: of medium length with clear, robust and perfectly perpendicular joints; medium-length pastorals and solid feet with wide, short, well-tightened and uniform nails.
- Gait: agile and determined with a certain ease of movement in the rear train.

Belgian Landrace - Morphological characters

The National Pig Breeders Association (ANAS) manages the herd book of the Belgian Landrace breed.
- Type: medium size, fleshy, light but solid skeleton.
- Coat and Pigmentation: white bristles that regularly cover the body; depigmented skin (rosea), smooth and without folds; the presence of some small black skin spots and clearly delimited slate is tolerated.
- Head: light, fine, medium length, dry, sufficiently large with straight frontal-nasal profile; slightly drooping ears, directed forward of medium length, light.
- Neck: medium long, thin, harmoniously connected with the head and trunk.
- Trunk: elongated; broad shoulders, well fleshed and firm; withers flat and medium wide; wide, muscular and medium deep chest; back and loins sufficiently long, wide, very fleshy, horizontal which harmoniously connects with the regions of the withers and the rump; broad, long, flat, muscular croup slightly inclined, which connects with the buttocks regularly; tail attached low; side and sides depressed, well shaped and full; medium full belly, supported and forming a straight line with the sternum; ham which results from the description of the rump and buttock and therefore, on the whole, very developed in the anteroposterior direction, often, globular, very muscular and lean, very descended.
- Limbs: medium length, straight, with clear joints, sufficiently robust and in perfect perpendicularity; medium length pastorals and sufficiently solid feet with wide, short, well-tightened and uniform nails.
- Pace: agile and safe.

Italian Landrace boar (photo website)


Video: Breeds of Pigs (January 2022).